Posted: September 12th, 2023

Assignemnt 4 final draft continue

Miraflore Ndifon Rough Draft Christopher Moreland University of California San Diego MMW 8/1/2023

Dear Reader,

Throughout my final paper, I delve into 1260 CE’s complex network of political power struggles and governmental frameworks, situated within the larger context spanning 1250 to 1799 CE. The objective of this research was to shed light on a significant, yet contestable issue in the scholarship: Structures, regions, environments, and knowledge played key roles when assessing how 1260 CE was affected by politics.

Utilizing a variety of materials, including academic papers, primary sources, and theoretical frameworks, I have endeavored to disentangle the convoluted network of politics that characterized this particular moment in history. Twelve sources have been meticulously curated, encompassing an equilibrium of fundamental and academic works.

To address this issue, I posed a refined level-3 question: In 1260 CE, what drove the significant changes in politics and governance? Investigating different areas of the topic, my research encompassed Goldstone’s theoretical underpinnings and Silver’s localized perspective. Through studies like Chen et al.’s analysis of Central Asian streamflow variations, I expanded knowledge while investigating environment factors, just like how Grynaviski and Steinsson did when looking into state formation and the diffusion of ideas across their research on Scandinavia.

My ultimate goal has been to paint a complex picture of the political atmosphere during those years (1260 CE). Political power struggles during this timeframe saw a multifaceted dance among several variables, resulting in far-reaching consequences across the globe and long-lasting effects felt globally.

umanity experienced a transformative era beginning with the date 1260 CE, which signifies an important juncture in global historical records. This historical phase necessitates an examination of regional differences regarding political strength and administrative frameworks, as these variables had a tremendous impact then. Through an examination of historical occurrences during this time period, we aim to illuminate the labyrinthine networks of power dynamics that defined politics then.

Understanding political power and how it functions through governance requires an appreciation of this fundamental

Governmental structures gain insight into how shifting levels of authority impact myriad actors involved in politics via an analysis of political power fluctuations. A multifaceted process involving deliberation, conflict, partnerships, and strategy results in the creation of a governance structure. A society is ruled based mainly on how its power distribution is arranged through laws that govern conduct and decision-making.

In his book “Revolution: Revolutionary movements gain greater clarity through Goldstone’s book “Structure and Meaning in World History.” Despite spanning several centuries, this text delves deeply into the underlying mechanics and philosophical interpretations of revolution, offering profound understandings of 1260 CE’s tumultuous political landscape. Examining Goldstone’s concepts in light of this specific time period reveals how diverse motivations and systemic factors contributed to changes and adjustments in power dynamics. A prism that offers insights into politics in 1260 CE, this theoretical structure allows us.


Chen, F., Yuan, Y., Trouet, V., Buntgen, U., Esper, J., Chen, F., … & Zhang, H. (2022).

Ecological and societal effects of Central Asian streamflow variation over the past eight centuries. npj Climate and Atmospheric Science, 5(1), 27.

Gamble, R., Powers, J., & Hackett, P. (2022). Central Tibetan famines 1280-1400: when

premodern climate change and bad governance starved Tibet. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 85(2), 215-233.

Grynaviski, E., & Steinsson, S. (2023). Wisdom Is Welcome Wherever It Comes From: War, Diffusion, and State Formation in Scandinavia. International Organization, 77(2), 294-323.

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