Posted: June 26th, 2022

LWZ316 Evidence Law


Rittman & Rittman [2012] FamCAFC 151 [122] The Full Court of the Family Court of Australia rejected the appealant’s argument that the trial judge had erred in stating that “[t]he Rule of Browne v Dunn [hardly applies] in an age when we have trial by affidavit”.

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The Full Court ruled at [127] in favor of the “trial judge’s analysis” of Browne v Dunn as it applies to a trial in which evidence is given by an affidavit.

This view is not shared by all legal professionals.

Referring to Browne v Dunn (1893) R 672,2 the Evidence (National Uniform Legislation Act (NT), explain the scope of Browne v Dunn. Also, discuss the application of the rule in a trial in which the evidence-in­chief is given in affidavit.


Browne v. Dunn is a well-known British Case Law, whose verdict was based upon the rules of cross-examination.

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The “Browne V Dunn Rule” is the result of Christianization of the case due to the grounds of precedence.

This case’s ruling was generally observed to mean that the cross-examination could not rely on evidence that is contradictory to the authentication.

In this case, authentication did not require that the evidence or proof be presented to the witness.

This was done to allow them to justify their undertaken contradiction.

According to the ruling, the witness is allowed to authenticate the person who contradicts his or her wishes.

As a proof or evidence of law, the witness must be allowed to dispute the testimony during cross-examination.

This rule could be referred to as an anti-ambush rule. It prevents an individual or witness from bringing up a matter and gives them the chance to express their opinions.

The rule was also mentioned that it was established in this case because of a long-standing attributed feature in Singapore’s legal system.

Its origin is in civil lawsuits, but it has been “pushed into the criminal service of the state with minor adjustments” since its inception.

It was created in collaboration. The Rule, which was acknowledged in this case, outlines principles such as:

If the CE was forced or determined to force, evidences should be presented that oppose the witness being cross-examined.

He should then give the witness the opposite details so that the witness’ evidence can be made into an argument and the witness would be allowed to answer.

The tribunal could then view the evidence of the witness as undisputed, if the cross-examiner fails to present his case to the witness.

The Rule’s irreducible core is the inoffensive proposition that any person should face any oppositional proof that was being relied upon (and suggested to be forced) from the cross-examiner.

The Rule’s continuation was inspired by the simple principle that witnesses should be allowed to explain and describe their place before opposing descriptions.

These issues should be presented to the tribunals in detail before any accusation is made that the witness’s story lacks recognition.

The ruling was considered to be consistent with natural ideas of fairness, clarity and appropriate principled performances in the absence of such a Rule of adjust act in litigation.

Individual specifications might be motivated to keep their proof cards close to their hearts until the end of the proceeding to withdraw conflicts concerning the answers.

This state of mind, which is not necessary to be stated, distorts lawful procedure.

This cause views the litigation procedure as a purely calculated war rather than propositions of distinct reality.

It may be considered predictable to examine, and the Rule might have a principled ruling mentioned under r 60(g) Legal Profession (Professional Conduct) Rules. (Cap 161, R 1).

Rule 60(g), which says that a lawyer cannot in a speech accuse a witness against whom he had a chance CE, unless CE has given the witness the opportunity to respond to the accusation.”

While the standard was easy to understand, it could be challenging to follow.

The ruling was criticized for its rational and sensible purpose d’etre and in many ways it was regarded as one of the most misinterpreted and widely applied rules in the monarchy criminal advocacy act and process.

Although there was a minimum of certainty in such disagreements, it was evident from the resulting deliberations that the tribunals had differing opinions about the effect of the ruling on a realistic and definite atmosphere.

This ruling’s aspiration was much more self-evident because it sought to gain insight into domestic law.

This ruling defines the fundamental rules that govern the operation of the standards.

It is important to note that the Rule has practical implications and issues.

Important dependence has been placed upon familial criminal jurisprudence.

The ruling details provide a different perspective than matters in civil land.

The appropriateness of the ruling request was typically marked in criminal cases.

The possibility of an unexpected “astonishment” at the last minute meant that the decision was not only condemned but also restrained in civil land by the requirement for individuals to file affidavits or proceedings.

According to the verdict, it was stated, “Before the verdicts, it was important to have meticulous attention to the rule of practic,” which contradicted crossexaminer’s dependence on proofs. This was conflicting with the witness and the spectator.

The spectator is not permitted to impose proofs.

The case of Allied Pastoral Holdings Pty Ltd v The Commissioner of Taxation essentially defined the rule.

It was stated here that the CE meaning must be noted unless it has been previously provided.

In order to rely on such cases, it was necessary to ask an opponent’s CE witness the nature of the matter that it was projected to be dependent in disagreement with his proofs.

The prime matter is dependent upon the conclusions that can be drawn from the other evidence in the suits.

This rule of practice was essential in giving witnesses the opportunity to discuss any other evidences or allowing them to draw conclusions from the evidence to allow the other person to reach the conclusion they desired.

In this case, however, the common law was focused on the rule that fairness.

This rule gives spectators the opportunity to see if the other person intends to oppose them.

Currently, there are doubts as to whether or not the rule is applicable to criminal proceedings.

It was not present in the case of MWJ v R, but important qualifications were observed that it could be applied to criminal cases.

The most important credentials were that the tribunal should reflect on the course and nature of suit when evaluating the outcome of a break down to CE on a point upon which an individual relies.

The request for a ruling must not be used to relocate evidence from the prosecution side.

This essay discusses the case of MWJ v R. It also explains the logic behind the request for the rule.

It was evident from the above discussions that this case was based on a significant rule in proficient practice.

It is necessary that, unless a note has been provided before then, ‘it would not be essential to ask an opponent’s eyewitness to CE.

In light of the rule against matters opening, it was unfair to both the observer as well as the person calling the observer to disagree with an opportunity for enlightenment if a conflicting party at a proposed stage aims to ask distrust or to condemn the witness.

It could also be determined that the state recognized that this case applies to both criminal and civil cases. However, the application might differ in criminal matters.

It was not clear when the rule was broken or what punishments would apply to the individual who violated it.

Currently, there are a few doubts about whether this case is appropriate for criminal cases.

To clarify the fundamental problem behind the rule’s request under criminal laws, the following matter will examine MWJ v R.

The tribunal is currently pursuing MWJ v R in R v MAP. This was based on specific aspects of the current case’s ruling, which was in MWJ v R.

Although the judges didn’t specifically refer to the rule in the case, the request for this case in criminal cases turned out to be one the originating opinions by the appellate court.

The claimant claimed that the appellate court made an error in this request and that there was a discrepancy in a previous declaration that cancelled the assurances.

Although the previous allegations were correct, the High Court ruled that the final one was not.

Although the plea was dismissed, it was connected to the two appeal bases, which were linked to the subsequent centers. These were made on the request of Browne v Dunn.

Despite these confusions, it was established in the case MWJ v R the Browne v Dunn matter was applicable to criminal cases within the state.

It was also confirmed that the ‘need was established and was used daily in criminal cases.

The High Court did however express a few principles in relation to the rule request, which was established by Browne v Dunn.

This rule should be applied carefully when considering the conduct of the defense in a criminal proceeding.

Judges suggested that judges consider R. v Birks (Birks), and R. v Manunta to explain the need for caution.

Birks confirmed that it is wrong to wait for an unrepresented respondent in order to comply with the rule. It was also affirmed that it could apply to CE of one coaccused by another.

R. v Manunta was cited by some judges. It was decided that if an adjudicator made a legal comment regarding the case, the judge should consider the commentary.

MWJ v R was decided against this backdrop. The judges ruled that a failure in CE must be measured ‘in the beam of the character of the hearings.

A failure to CE could result in a variety of details that do not reflect the trustworthiness and credibility of the observer.

Contraventions of the present case are those where the cross-examining individual seeks to take care of opposing evidences in its own matter, but not necessarily the ruling.

After relating these thoughts, the court concluded that the plaintiff was not entitled to be questioned by the defense advocate about the irregularity.

CE was a forensic case, and the defense advocate had to make a decision.

The judges and courts made misinterpretations of the case by expressing criticisms about this point.

The other judges agreed that CE failure was an example of a case that needed to be measured when assessing the burden of proof.

The ruling in this case must therefore be functional and mindful of the ‘inescapable burden of evidence approved by tribunal in an illegal case.

This discussion considers the need of the tribunal to CE the plaintiff on discrepancy.

Porter v Oamps was the case in which it was established that Browne V Dunn couldn’t prevail because the witnesses were aware of the issues and each witness would give their responses to the proposed solutions.

However, a bill was introduced in the state in 2011.

The Evidence (National Uniform Legislation Bill 2011

The Evidence (National Uniform Legislation) Bill 2011.

This bill and this act have a particular relation in the case because section 46 of uniform Evidence Acts addresses the same ground, but not substituting it, in the case at hand.

The tribunal can grant leave to an individual to recall an observer to give proof about a case that was uplifted by evidence which was forced or made by another individual. This applies only to cases on which the observer was not CE.

It disagrees with the evidence about the case given by the spectator in assessment-in-chief;

A spectator could have provided evidence about the case during assessment in chief.

This Act overlaps with the rule of justice in Brown v Dunn (1893), 6 R 67, although it may not go as far as the common-law ruling.

Although the rule was more applicable in criminal than civil cases, it was still considered to be valid to a certain extent.

If a respondent is allowed to cross-examine the subject on a suspected discrepancy, but fails to, this may prevent a dependency on the presumed discrepancy to question the trustworthiness and credibility of the observer in the future. However, the failure to cross-examine will not be taken into account ‘in evaluating how much load must be provided with the inadequacies.

This section was designed to make it easier for an observer to remember these circumstances and also the leave of tribunal and its authenticity.

Rittman & Rittman was the case where the tribunal rejected the claimant’s acquiescence. The tribunal stated that the judges made a mistake and that “the rule in this case barely applied in an age when people have trial via affidavit”.

In the present case, it was stated that “a study of this rule should be made as it applies to a proceeding in which proof was granted through affidavit was, according to them, entirely appropriate”.

This view is not shared by all lawful practitioners.

Abdul Nasser’s case was seen as a symbol of the stress solicitors and advocates face when trying to determine how to best relate a ruling to a case.

Even the smallest details could lead to discordant views by the tribunal and different conclusions as to whether certain questions should be considered and which cases need to be put no doubts about the role of the Rule’s inherent elasticity.

This could be especially true for illegal acts. The requirement for fast and well-organized hearings must include the information that any non-abidance will be fatal because it “impacts upon the evidence wherein it was stated, that non-appearance might obliterate this matter for the individual”.

It was therefore concluded that, in light of the apparent nonappearance and official declarations that grant a deep insight into the personal position of individuals in criminal cases, “may not for ever conclude in fair presumption.”

Advocates and practitioners might agree that the observation was significant wisdom. It stated that if a person is faced with a hard and prejudiced option, it should be preferred to choose comprehensiveness over conciseness.

It was also stated that, given the complexity of the cases, the rulings in the present case are the result of a violation.

Replication is particularly important in the manner this case interacts with other laws and lawful practice.

This case was referred to as MWJ v R. It deals with illegal cases with substantial credentials.

The ruling request must be considered on a case-by-case basis taking into account the harshness of illegal events.

It was confirmed that the concerns in relation to the present criminal case would be about the security of an accused’s privilege to remain silent and the avoidance or disarticulation by the examiner’s burdens of evidence.

This case shows that the ruling in illegal events was not suited to these main beliefs.

Allied Pastoral holdings Pty Ltd v The Commissioner of Taxation [1983] 1NSWLR 1 a 16.

Rittman & Rittman [2012] FamCAFC 151 [122].

Rules for Legal Profession (Professional Conduct), Cap 161, r 1, Rule 60(g).

2011: The Evidence (National Uniform Legislation).

Mcewan, Alexandra. ‘The Rule in Browne v Dunn in Australian Criminal Law : MWJ v R v MAP (2006) 13 James Cook University Law Review 155.

Australasian Legal Info Institute, Aspects of Advocacy: Effective Presentation Of Evidence (13 August 2006>

Australasian Legal Info Institute, Evidence (National Uniform Legislation), Bill 2011 (2017).>.

Christopher A. Wayland and Paul Morrison, Browne V. Dunn and Similar Evidence, (2017).

Mohamed Faizal Mohamed Abdul Kadir (2017), “The Rule in Browne V Dunn in Cross Examination : A Singapore Perspective”>

Municipal Court, Wayne County Municipal Court Wayne County Ohio Local Rules, (1 January 2012) file :///C/Users/win/Downloads/muni_court_rules_2012.pdf>

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