Posted: January 19th, 2022

Your job for this discussion board is to choose a developmental


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Essay 4 (Module 5):

Topic: There’s an App for That!

Your job for this discussion board is to choose a developmental period and design an app that would apply to them. It could be a game, a self-help app, a parenting resource app, etc. For your discussion thread:

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  • Describe your app. What is the purpose? How does it work?
  • Identify the target audience for your app (i.e., who you would want to buy/download it).
  • Discuss key developmental markers or characteristics for that age group (include textbook citations).
  • Discuss the key developmental period or elements that this app will address, using citations from your textbook to support the need for your app. 
    • Chapter 9 Introduction
    • Module 9.1 Prenatal Development: A Case of Nature and Nurture
    • Module 9.2 Infant Development
    • Module 9.3 Years of Discovery: Emotional, Social, and Cognitive Development in Childhood
    • Module 9.4 Adolescence
    • Module 9.5 Early and Middle Adulthood
    • Module 9.6 Late Adulthood
    • Chaptre 9 Human Development Concept Chart
  • Chapter 9 DO Mastery TrainingNot startedPRACTICE–/1

7 hours ago

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to …

  • 1Identify and describe the stages of prenatal development and major threats to prenatal development.
  • 2Identify reflexes present at birth.
  • 3Describe the infant’s sensory, perceptual, and learning abilities.
  • 4Describe the development of the infant’s motor skills in the first year of life.
  • 5Identify and describe three types of infant temperament and three types of infant attachment styles.
  • 6Identify and describe the major parenting styles.
  • 7Identify and describe Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development in childhood.
  • 8Describe Piaget’s stages of cognitive development.
  • 9Describe Vygotsky’s psychosocial theory of cognitive development.
  • 10Describe the physiological, cognitive, and psychosocial changes that occur during adolescence, and Erikson’s beliefs about psychosocial development in adolescence.
  • 11Describe Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning and evaluate his theory in light of Gilligan’s criticism.
  • 12Describe the physical and cognitive changes that occur during adulthood and Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development in early and middle adulthood.
  • 13Describe the physical and cognitive changes we can expect later in life, and Erikson’s views on psychosocial development in late adulthood.
  • 14Evaluate the qualities associated with successful aging.
  • 15Identify the stages of dying proposed by Kübler-Ross.
  • 16Apply suggestions for living a longer and healthier life.

Keeping Peace at the Dinner Table

One of the things parents learn when they have a second child is the everyday meaning of the concept of equality. They learn that whatever they give to one child they must give to the other in equal measure. This lesson in parenting was driven home for me one day when we sat down at the dinner table to share a pizza. Everything was fine until we divided the last two slices between Daniella, then age 5, and Michael, who was then 11. I noticed Daniella’s eyes beginning to well up with tears. I asked her what was wrong. She pointed to Michael’s slice and said that his was bigger. Michael had already begun eating his slice, so it was clear that pulling a last-minute switch wouldn’t ease her concern, let alone be fair to Michael. It was then that the heavy hammer of equality came down squarely on my head.

To resolve the situation, I drew upon a principle you’ll read about in this chapter: the principle of conservation. This is the principle that the amount or size of a substance does not change merely as the result of a superficial change in its outward appearance. You don’t increase the amount of clay by merely flattening or stretching it out. Neither do you increase the amount of a liquid by pouring it from a wider container into a narrower one, even though the liquid rises to a higher level in the narrower container. Although the principle of conservation may seem self-evident to an adult or older child, the typical 5-year-old has not mastered this concept. Knowing this, I quickly took a pizza slicer and divided Daniella’s slice into two. “There,” I said, “now you have twice as many slices as Michael.” Michael gave me a quizzical look, as if he was wondering who on earth would fall for such an obvious trick. Daniella, on the other hand, looked at the two slices and quite happily started eating them, the tears receding. Peace at the Nevid dining table was restored, at least for the moment.

The pizza incident illustrates a theme that carries throughout our study of human development. It’s not about applying principles of child psychology to keep peace at the dinner table. Rather, it’s about understanding that the world of the child is very different from the world of the adolescent or adult. Children’s cognitive abilities and ways of understanding the world change dramatically during childhood. As we continue our voyage of discovery through development, we’ll find that many adolescents see themselves and the world quite differently than do their parents and other adults. Even in adulthood, people of 20-something or 30-something years see themselves and their place in the world quite differently than do those of more advanced years.

In this chapter, we trace the remarkable journey that is human development. Our story would be incomplete without first considering the important events that occur well before a child takes its first breath.

Did You Know that…

  • A fertilized egg cell is not yet attached to the mother’s body during the first week or so after conception? ( Stages of Prenatal Development)
  • There is no accepted safe limit for alcohol use during pregnancy? ( Threats to Prenatal Development)
  • Baby geese followed a famous scientist around as if he were their mother? ( Attachment: Binding Ties)
  • According to theorist Erik Erikson, the development of a sense of trust begins before the infant speaks its first word? ( Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development)
  • It is normal for a 4-year-old to believe the moon has feelings? ( Cognitive Development)
  • Despite what you may have heard, the percentage of teenagers who engage in sexual intercourse today is actually less than it was at the beginning of the new millennium? ( Psychosocial Development)
  • A midlife crisis may be more the exception than the rule during middle adulthood? ( Psychosocial Development)
  • The next best thing to a Fountain of Youth may be your neighborhood gym? ( The Last Chapter: On Death and Dying)

Alison Gopnik: What do babies think?

Source: “Babies and young children are like the R&D division of the human species,” says psychologist Alison Gopnik. Her research explores the sophisticated intelligence-gathering and decision-making that babies are really doing when they play. TEDTalks is a daily video podcast of the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world’s leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes. Featured speakers have included Al Gore on climate change, Philippe Starck on design, Jill Bolte Taylor on observing her own stroke, Nicholas Negroponte on One Laptop per Child, Jane Goodall on chimpanzees, Bill Gates on malaria and mosquitoes, Pattie Maes on the “Sixth Sense” wearable tech, and “Lost” producer JJ Abrams on the allure of mystery. TED stands for Technology, Entertainment, Design, and TEDTalks cover these topics as well as science, business, development and the arts. Closed captions and translated subtitles in a variety of languages are now available on, at

Module Review

9.1Prenatal Development: A Case of Nature and Nurture


Identify and describe the stages of prenatal development and major threats to prenatal development.

The germinal stage is the period from conception to (a)implantation. The (b)embryonic stage begins with implantation and extends to about the eighth week of development; it is characterized by differentiation of the major organ systems. The (c)fetal stage begins around the ninth week and continues until birth; it is characterized by continued maturation of the fetus’s organ systems and dramatic increases in size.

Threats include maternal diet, maternal diseases and disorders, and use of certain medications and drugs. Exposure to particular (d)teratogens causes the greatest harm during critical periods of vulnerability.


The first stage of prenatal development, which ends with implantation in the uterine wall, is called thegerminal stage.

Name two major risks to the developing embryo or fetus.


maternal malnutrition, teratogens

  • 3.
    • (a) the first stage of pregnancy
    • (b) a protective environment
    • (c) the organ in which nutrients and wastes are exchanged within the uterus
    • (d) a structure in the developing organism from which the nervous system develops
    • neural tube
    • placenta
    • amniotic sac
    • germinal stage

Match the following terms to their descriptions:


  • Based on your reading of the text, what advice might you give someone about the risks posed by drinking alcohol or smoking during pregnancy?
  • Would you want to know if you or your partner were at risk for carrying a genetic abnormality? Why or why not? How would such knowledge affect your decisions about having children?


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