you must post a substantive response to any one (or more) of the open-answer questions provided below

(2) What is logical empiricism in the philosophy of science, and what problems does it face? 

(3) What is meant by the idea that observation is theory-laden? 

(4) What is the deductive-nomological model of scientific explanation? 

(5) What is falsificationism, and how is supposed to demarcate genuine science from pseudo-science? 

(6) What is scientific realism, and how does it account for scientific progress? 

(7) What is scientific instrumentalism, and how does it differ from scientific realism? 

(8) What is the underdetermination of theory by data thesis, and what implications might it have for scientific realism? 

(9) What is the no miracles argument for scientific realism? How plausible is it? 

(10) What is the incommensurability thesis, and what challenge does it pose for scientific realism?